ANCA glomerulonephritis and vasculitis are rare autoimmune diseases, meaning that the body’s own immune system injures its cells and tissues. Vasculitis is a disorder where there is destruction of blood vessels by inflammation that affects both arteries and veins. Glomerulonephritis is a kind of kidney disease caused by inflammation in the glomeruli (the small blood vessels) in the kidneys.
Bell’s palsy is an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis. It begins suddenly and worsens over 48 hours. This condition results from damage to the facial nerve (the 7th cranial nerve). Pain and discomfort usually occur on one side of the face or head. Bell’s palsy can strike anyone at any age.
Bilateral facial palsy, AKA Facial Diplegia, is defined as facial paralysis or paresis affection both sides of the face, with onset being either completely simultaneous or the second side being affected within 30 days of the first side.
HLA-B27–associated uveitis is most often characterized by recurrent anterior ocular inflammation in one eye at a time. Bilateral simultaneous disease is much less common and behaves differently from unilateral disease, with fewer recurrences.
Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa. A bursa is a closed, fluid-filled sac that works as a cushion and gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body. The major bursae (this is the plural of bursa) are located next to the tendons near the large joints, such as in the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees.
“Encephalopathy” means damage or disease that affects the brain. It happens when there’s been a change in the way your brain works or a change in your body that affects your brain. Those changes lead to an altered mental state, leaving you confused and not acting like you usually do.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. There are several causes, including viral infection, autoimmune inflammation, bacterial infection, insect bites and others. Sometimes there is no known cause.
The PULS Cardiac Test is a blood test that identifies people who are seemingly healthy, but who have a high risk of Heart Disease. The test detects the early stages of Heart Disease. by detecting the initial arterial or endothelial injury. leading to unstable cardiac lesion rupture
Hematuria is the presence of blood in a person’s urine. Gross hematuria is when a person can see the blood in his or her urine, and microscopic hematuria is when a person cannot see the blood in his or her urine, yet a health care professional can see it under a microscope.
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (also known as IgA vasculitis) is a disorder that causes the small blood vessels in your skin, joints, intestines and kidneys to become inflamed and bleed. The most striking feature of this form of vasculitis is a purplish rash, typically on the lower legs and buttocks.
Hepatitis is a general term used to describe inflammation of the liver. Liver inflammation can be caused by several viruses (viral hepatitis), chemicals, drugs, alcohol, certain genetic disorders or by an overactive immune system that mistakenly attacks the liver, called autoimmune hepatitis.
In genetics, the production of identical or similar phenotypes by different genetic mechanisms. A phenotype resembling a known phenotype but determined by a different genetic mechanism is called a genocopy or genetic mimic.
Acute tubular necrosis is a condition that causes the lack of oxygen and blood flow to the kidneys, damaging them. Tube-shaped structures in the kidneys, called tubules, filter out waste products and fluid. These structures are damaged in acute tubular necrosis.
Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated with mast cell activation, such as allergies or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that can involve other interrelated and interacting inflammatory cells behaving as a ‘ball of thread’.
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is a neurological condition characterised by a contiguous inflammatory lesion of the spinal cord. LETM is often associated with the autoimmune central nervous system disease neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and rarely with multiple sclerosis.
Lymphadenitis is the medical term for enlargement in one or more lymph nodes, usually due to infection. Lymph nodes are filled with white blood cells that help your body fight infections. When lymph nodes become infected, it’s usually because an infection started somewhere else in your body.
Miller Fisher syndrome is a rare, acquired nerve disease that is considered to be a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. It is characterized by abnormal muscle coordination, paralysis of the eye muscles, and absence of the tendon reflexes.
Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that indicate your kidneys are not working properly. These symptoms include. too much protein in your urine, called proteinuria. low levels of a protein called albumin in your blood, called hypoalbuminemia. swelling in parts of your body, called edema.
Qualitative olfactory dysfunctions, such as parosmia and phantosmia, may be clinical conditions secondary to neurological diseases. The incidence of parosmia is underestimated, as well as its association with neurological diseases, due to poor self-reporting of patients and lack of objective methods for its measure.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic’s disease, is a rare condition where the immune system damages the spinal cord and the nerves of the eyes (optic nerves). NMO can affect anyone at any age, but it’s more common in women than men.
Perimyocarditis is an acute inflammation of the pericardium and the underlying myocardium resulting in myocellular damage. It is usually asymptomatic with complete resolution in most cases. It can however lead to fulminant cardiac failure resulting in death or requiring cardiac transplantation.
An olfactory hallucination (phantosmia) makes you detect smells that aren’t really present in your environment. The odors detected in phantosmia vary from person to person and may be foul or pleasant. They can occur in one or both nostrils.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a blood clot gets stuck in an artery in the lung, blocking blood flow to part of the lung. Blood clots most often start in the legs and travel up through the right side of the heart and into the lungs. This is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
Purpura annularis telangiectodes is a pigmented, purpuric eruption that occurs most commonly in adolescents and young adults. The disease is characterized by symmetrical, purpuric, telangiectatic, and atrophic patches, with a predilection for the lower extremities and buttocks.